Countries of Europe went out as traders to bring goods and wealth to their countries but they went on to conquer the countries they traded with. They got unlimited wealth back to their countries, that started the modern industrial revolution, and the destruction of industries and technologies in the countries they captured, so that goods made in their countries could sell in their colonies.
Today Europe is stopping countries from buying out their hi-tech companies. Recently Germany, France and Italy have asked the European Commission to protect member countries from those trying to buy industries that have high end duel use military and civilian technology. Germany blocked the takeover of a chip making company Aixtron by China, because it felt the chips could be used in making nuclear weapons.
India’s trade with Europe has increased in the recent past as we are buying a lot of weapons and the technology to make them in India. Be it for the Army, Navy or Air Force.
Stopping terror in many European countries by sharing intelligence with them is a new area of cooperation between Europe and India. Launching of satellites of European countries by ISRO, Indian space organisation is a new area of cooperation.
Admitting nations like Greece into the European Union started the economic troubles of the European union, Europe agreed for an economic bailout package for Greece of Euro 110 Billion, and also a fund of Euro 750 billion to keep the Eurozone together. Then followed the Ireland bailout package with Euro 90 Billion bailout. Spain and Portugal had also to be helped; Germany to a large extent took a big portion of the lending money bailout. It is the great German Chancellor Angela Merkel, leader of the strongest economy in Europe, made it happen, bailing out all the poor countries of Europe.
Mass immigration took place from the troubled war-torn areas of the Middle East to the oldest civilized part of the world. Many landed in prosperous Germany and other countries. The entire European Union was a victim of mass transfer of people like that had never happened before, flooding Europe with people fleeing their countries, creating a gigantic human problem of settling them, thus badly impacting the already strained European welfare system, the best in the world. Letting this influx of refugees to happen has led to a lot of political and social issues for the Europeans, but the credit of finding solutions for this goes to the German Chancellor, Angela Merkel who was trying to solve a great human tragedy with compassion.
The EU and India recently announced the establishment of an Investment Facilitation Mechanism (IFM) for EU investments in India. An official statement said, “The mechanism will allow for a close coordination between the European Union and the Government of India with an aim to promote and facilitate EU investments in India.”
We are bringing out this Special Issue at an appropriate time when significant changes are taking all over Europe in political, social and economic fronts.
We are extremely thankful to Professor Gulshan Sachdeva, Jean Monnet Chair and Director, Europe Area Studies, Centre for European Studies, SIS, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi for planning and co-ordinating this issue as the GUEST EDITOR.
We are sure the readers will be largely benefitted with this updated publication contributed by specialists of the area concerned.
In the last few years, Europe is facing many challenges. These include difficulties in managing a single currency mechanism, influx of refugees, crisis in Ukraine, terrorist attacks, rise of populism and British exit from the European Union (EU). Despite these difficulties, the EU is still a major economy with huge capacities to influence issues concerning global governance. As a major trade and investment partner of India, developments in Europe have significant implications for the Indian economy and India-EU ties. After a few years of sluggishness, India-EU strategic partnership is again gaining momentum with an agreed Agenda for Action 2020. As negotiations on bilateral trade and investment agreement may take time, both India and the EU are focusing on other areas where increased consultations can lead to concrete outcomes. The areas include climate change, energy, environment, counter-terrorism, maritime security, science and technology, development cooperation, migration and mobility, civil society linkages and dialogues on Asia and Africa.You need to subscribe
This article provides a broad overview of relations between the European Economic Community (EEC)/European Union (EU) since the Treaty of Rome to the present. It discusses initial Indian perceptions of the EEC, the institutional architecture of dialogue and interaction and focuses on the convergence and divergence on a number of political issues, including global governance.You need to subscribe
The “essence” of the EU is essentially all about subjecting inter-state relations to the rule of law and it is but natural for the Union to preach and practice multilateralism, both in domestic and external fronts. The EU’s preference for multilateralism remains at two levels. At the first level, the Union expects that the third countries must have direct relations with it at the multilateral level than with its member states bilaterally and at the second stage, the EU professes multilateralism at the international level with the UN at its centre.You need to subscribe
The article examines how the end of Cold War transformed Europe and the changing security dynamics in context of the European Union (EU). Divided into three parts: i) the Post-Cold War period, 1990 - 2000, (ii) the post 9/11 period- 2000-2009, (iii) Lisbon and the Global Strategy: the way ahead, 2009- it locates how the in the backdrop of global security developments, the EU has responded to the changing nature of threats to transform itself into a security actor.You need to subscribe
Britain’s relationship with the European Union has always been problematic - prior to its entry into the EU in 1973 as well as during its 43 year membership. However the process of its disengagement from the EU, post June 2016, is technically so complex that the negotiation, just begun, have assumed a polemical overtone. A botched snap election gamble it by the British Prime Minister has added to the confusion.You need to subscribe
Even a casual observer of European political and social scene today would be quick to identify the rise of right-wing political parties across Europe. Given the horrific brush with right-wing politics and nationalism that Europe had in its Fascist and Nazi incarnation during the interwar period this contemporary right-wing ascendance has elicited both attention and apprehension.You need to subscribe
The development cooperation policy of the European Union (EU) ever since its inception has witnessed significant changes in its nature and direction. EU’s development policy framework had its origin in the “association” of the overseas countries and territories (former colonies of founding members) with the fledgling EEC for economic and social development at the insistence of French in the negotiations in 1956 leading to Rome Treaty.You need to subscribe
Multiculturalism can be understood and explained as a fact, as a value and as a policy. In the contemporary milieu of ever increasing international migration and mixing of cultures, cultural diversity is inevitable. In this context to understand multiculturalism in all its dimensions becomes all the more relevant. Both India and Europe are multicultural. If on one hand the magnitude of ethnographic-cultural diversity of India and Europe presents interesting patterns of ‘unity in diversity’ then on the other hand it poses challenges of social integration of people from different cultural and ethnic background.You need to subscribe
Since World War II, Europe has seen dramatic transformation of its borders. It has covered the full circle from the hard notions of territorial sovereignty enshrined in the Treaty of Westphalia to the Schengen Agreement wherein Europe allows free movement of goods, services, people and capital within the European Economic Area. The article looks at the changing borders in the European Union and their impact on the immediate neighbourhood of Europe.You need to subscribe
The paper provides a comprehensive analysis of EU’s development policy in South Asia. The paper covers the approach, method and theories of development assistance and evaluates it by studying the development role of the EU in South Asia. For a focused discussion, the EU’s development programmes in Pakistan, Bangladesh, India and Afghanistan are highlighted in this paper.You need to subscribe
The issue of climate change has invoked the European Union’s interests since the time the issue became a political one in early 1990s. The EU has been an active entity in formulating rules and policies to address climate change domestically and internationally too. It was a leader in the climate change issue for a decade responsible for successful ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and implementing various policies and practices. Its role however has considerably weakened post Copenhagen Summit in 2009.You need to subscribe
Foreign and security policy cooperation is an ambitious goal of the European Union (EU). The EU has been successful to portray itself as a single actor in areas of international trade negotiation. However, on critical areas of ‘high politics’ of ‘national importance’, the EU Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) characterizes an interplay of politics at the domestic, regional and international level.You need to subscribe
Dissolution of the USSR and the end of the Cold War had transformative impact on geopolitical environment of Europe. In a changed environment, initially Russia moved towards Western countries and organizations for a closer partnership. Early enthusiasm, however, did not last long and a disillusioned Russia changed the course of its foreign policy from western-orientation to multipolar orientation. At the turn of the 21st century, President Putin adopted a pragmatic approach to cooperate with the West in a framework of fight against terrorism.You need to subscribe
Since 2009, Greece is facing a severe economic and political crisis. Apart fom broader global financial crisis of 2007 and crisis in the Eurozone, there are many domestic factors responsible for this crisis; Greece’s turbulent political past and complex and populist economic policies forced the nation to increase its public debt and deficit. The crisis has also exposed the loopholes in Eurozone policies that need to be changed.You need to subscribe
With the global community strongly debating on mitigating climate change and adapting a cohesive environmental policy, the issue of using nuclear energy stands at a crossroad. This constant pursuit of procuring several energy resources has resulted in several challenges for the international community. During the 1970s as fallout of the oil crisis, nuclear energy emerged as a major game changer which critically highlighted the need for achieving energy security.You need to subscribe
In order to escape increasing political violence in West Asia and Africa, refugees are fleeing by sea to seek asylum in Europe, which is experiencing the highest influx of refugees since the Second World War. Unable to form a collective response, European Union member states are scrambling for a solution, which has led to a humanitarian crisis.You need to subscribe
The refugee crisis can have profound implications for Europe’s economy and society. This paper uses recent data to analyse the economic impact of refugees on Europe in terms of employment, wage rate and economic growth. The paper argues that refugees can resolve labour shortage that countries such as Germany face today.You need to subscribe
We face a world in which geopolitical and geo-economic risks are multiplying. Most of West Asia is ablaze, stoking speculation that a long Sunni-Shia war (like Europe’s Thirty Years’ War between Catholics and Protestants) could be at hand. China’s rise is fuelling a wide range of territorial disputes in Asia and challenging America’s strategic leadership in the region. And Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has apparently become a semi-frozen conflict, but one that could reignite at any time.You need to subscribe