Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK)

Editorial

For the first time in 70 years India is looking at what is good for the country without fear of upsetting anyone. Today the Modi government has shown a method in the vision of trade of not participating in the One Belt One Road Summit in Beijing on a principled stand. This whole exercise by China is to see that the entire region is free from being the hotbed of terrorism, in return the entire area is getting infrastructure connectivity. Pakistan border regions Afghanistan and the Central Asia region need funds for development China by entering the area and developing it with the Army standing by to get work done is giving Pakistan no reason to Nurture terrorism. Nawaz Sharif is getting development done in the region, by the Chinese to whom neither his army nor anyone else can say anything. He too by this will see Pakistan turning a new leaf in its growth story. The army will soon stop calling the shorts once the China- Pakistan Economic Corridor is done. With China it is a perception issue, for India if the conditions are right can always join the Belt and Road Initiative. India by working with Japan and Isreal will be the Infrastructure builder of all the projects with a win-win relationship with both Japan and Israel. This is an equal alliance of brain, power and a will to go forward. Japan and Israel have the technology we need in all fields. They get a good market for their products whether it is infrastructure hardware or electronic hardware or Nuclear know how. With Japan India will soon launch the development of Asia and Africa in the upcoming Annual meeting of African Development Bank. To be held at Ahmadabad this will be India’s answer to China’s OBOR. This is the biggest success of the Modi Foreign policy initiatives. For the first time the Russians are being told that getting business in the civil nuclear programme development in developing the Kundankulam 5 and 6 reactors are linked to Indian foreign policy goals. Today we are world leaders in Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR). Now we are putting up 10 reactors of 700MW capacity, it is a salute to Indigenous technology. We need Nuclear Suppliers Group membership it is said we have told the Russians that, do what it needs to get us the membership and come back. This is braveness that Indian foreign policy has not shown till now. All want peace and freedom from terrorism.

Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK)


Creation of Pakistan Occupied Kashmir and Present Scenerio
Anil Kamboj

I know that most of the readers must be aware about the background of creation of Pakistan occupied Kashmir. But, yet I again want to bring out some of the facts about today’s problem in that part of India, because it gives me lot of pain when almost every day I read that how our brave Security Forces are facing the situation in Kashmir both on the borders and as well inside. 

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Pakistan Occupied Kashmir and India: Perspectives
Prof. Snehalata Panda

Repetitions of history are as relevant as the theory that each occurrence is unique by itself for linking the present with the past. Jammu and Kashmir’s history lies in between the two. Cascading out of it is the dispute over PoK accelerated by strategic, political and economic factors.

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Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) & India
Dr. SudhanshuTripathi

As the 1994 Indian parliamentary resolution reiterated the legal position that the entire territory of the erstwhile princely state of Jammu and Kashmir is an integral part of India and asked Pakistan to vacate the area under its illegal occupation, it is, therefore, difficult to comprehend why India has taken so long to assert its legitimate claim over PoK in an effective and forceful manner. Indeed, India’s lackadaisical attitude on this issue is responsible, to a large extent, for the present chaotic situation in the Kashmir Valley.

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‘Trilateral’ Solution to The Kashmir Issue: Not Bilateral
G. Kishore Babu

In working out an out of the box solution of our border disputes and supporting in the practical and realistic trilateral peace process between India, Pakistan and China, the Modi Government is moving with times for the good of all will stand reinforced, winning global support. To do this we must realize that the settlement with Pakistan and China needs to be trilateral, with India, China and Pakistan being an integral part of the settlement. We can easily close our border issues with China and Pakistan on a tri-lateral basis, particularly based on ground realities today where it has become more of a regional issue particularly in light of OBOR, and trade and economy among the three nations.  Under current ground realities, no Pakistan civil government can settle its border issue with India on its own and remain in power as it needs the “Kavach” of the so called big powers to survive politically after signing up for peace with India. This is a reality for all to see.  

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Confidence Building Measures Travel and Trade Across LOC
Dr. B. Srinivas

Among a series of Confidence Building Measures that have been put in place over the past one decade to ease the tension between India and Pakistan, the twin Confidence Building Measures of LOC Travel and LOC Trade have stood the test of times and are in operation, al beit, with interruptions during periods of heightened hostility between the two neighbours.  The Confidence Building Measure aimed at building trust among the border populations on either side of LOC made a modest beginning and it has forged the reunion of many of the undivided families on either side.  

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Ghulam Kashmir: India’s Diplomatic Gambit Imperatives for an Action-Oriented Policy Intervention
Alok Kumar Gupta

Kashmir Valley has been on the boil once again after the decimation of Hizbul Mujahideen commander Burhan Wani in mid-2016. Relationship with Pakistan has gone down subsequently with consequent escalation of violence in Kashmir. Protestors and police have been clashing in the Valley on daily basis. Pakistan has been describing Wani as a ‘martyr’ and sending off letter to various international fora inviting them to take notice of human rights violations in Kashmir.

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Prognosis of Kashmir Crisis: Hobsonean Choice?
Dr. Gauri Sankar Nag

Kashmir crisis has undergone a dramatic change during the last two decades. The meaning of azadi has changed considerably taking the form of religion. The different factions in Kashmir’s separatist movement have lost their hold in the wake of aggressive jihadi groups. The intrusion of stone pelters and martyrdom of Kashmir terrorists have roused the emotion of the masses of Kashmir. 

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Turbulence in PoK: The China Factor
Dr. Netajee Abhinandan

Kashmir, once again, is in turmoil.  Peace eludes the state as large scale violence, killings, blasts and uprisings dominate the scene severely affecting daily lives of the people.  With the dramatic rise in infiltration from across the border coupled with internal resentment against some of the policies and actions of the ruling regime, Kashmir remains on the edge.  The efforts of the Indian government, both political and military, have failed to restore peace and normalcy in Kashmir.  

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India, PoK and CPEC: Narrowing the ‘Corridor’ of Indo-Pakistan Relations
Dr. Mohor Chakraborty

India’s reservations to the CPEC since its initiation by Beijing as an integral part of OBOR (renamed B&RI) did not come as a great surprise to the international community, overridden by New Delhi’s concerns over sovereignty with respect to the Corridor passing through PoK. The recent boycott of the Inaugural B&RI Forum by India substantiated its sustained and unwavering posture on the issue. 

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Strategic Shift in Modi’s Pakistan Policy and POK: The Challenges Ahead
Dr. Saleem Ahmad & Dr. Khushbu Gupta

Jammu and Kashmir is an area that includes three conflicted regions such as the Indian administered territory which comprises of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh, the Pakistan administered territories of Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan, and Chinese administered territories of Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Highway.

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OBOR through POK: A Threat to India’s Foreign Policy
Snehil Kacker

In international relations there are no permanent allies, there are only permanent interests .This statement of the past, holds relevance till date. No country can afford to place international concerns and commitments above its own national interests. Realpolitik means business and business requires prudence. At present, the International scenario is undergoing tremendous changes, however what remains constant is the pre eminence of national interests.

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Impact of Pak Occupied Kashmir on Indian Economy
Dr. Aparna Banerjee

The State of Jammu and Kashmir had long been a seat of political issue because of the conflict between India and Pakistan since Independence over the claims of territorial limits of Kashmir valley and its adjoining areas, popularly known as the Pak occupied Jammu and Kashmir region. 

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Terror Infrastructure in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir: India’s Security Concerns
Dr. Prasanta Sahoo

The Septermber 2016 surgical strikes conducted by India in the Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK) have once again highlighted the issue of terrorism in the region. PoK has become the hotbed of terrorism due to its massive terror infrastructure and widespread network across the border. 

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Pak-Occupied Kashmir and India: Can China-Pakistan Economic Corridor(CPEC) resolve this problem?
Dr. Pitam Ghosh

Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) consists of the so called ‘Azad Jammu and  Kashmir (AJK)’ and ‘Gilgit-Baltistan’ (referred to as the ‘Northern Areas’ till August 2009). PoK is part of the state of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), and hence an integral part of India. 

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The Contested Notion of PoK and Concerns for Regional Prosperity
Pankaj Lakhera

The Kashmir issue has been a bone of contention between two major powers of South Asia that is India and Pakistan. On one hand, India claims the entire territory of Kashmir and wishes to take back Pakistan Occupied Kashmir from Pakistan. On the other hand, Pakistan wants separation of Kashmir from India. 

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Geo-Politics of Gilgit-Baltistan: India and China-Pakistan Economic Corridor
Shivani Sharma

The British decision to quit India brought forth an essential question on the status of the princely states and their relationship with India and Pakistan. The British Cabinet Mission in 1946 however had declared that Britain’s paramountcy over the princely states would not be transferred to the successor government(s) but would simply lapse, meaning, rights that had been surrendered by Indian princes to the paramount power “will return to the states” ( Menon 1955:47).

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State Sponsored Terrorism in India: Why India’s Conducted Surgical Strikes in Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir ?
Afroz Ahmad & Jahangir Ahmad Khan

India’s experiences with state sponsor terrorism, like other countries in the South Asian region, can also be broadly divided into external and internal terrorism. External largely covers state sponsor terrorism, concerns with “cross-border terrorism” perpetrated by Indian neighbouring countries especially terrorist groups based in Pakistan with connections to Al-Qaeda. More recently, the appearance of support groups based in Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Sri Lanka has resulted in the spread of terrorism from specific locale to urban centres in India.

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Contrasting Development: A Study of Economic Realities of India and Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK)
Parul Khatri & Charu Khatri

Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) has been a major issue of incongruity between India and Pakistan since partition. PoK is commonly known in Pakistan as Azad Kashmir (which lies to the west of the India’s state of Jammu and Kashmir) and Gilgit-Baltistan. While India refers these areas as”Pakistan occupied Kashmir”, United Nations and other international organisations refer to these areas as “Pakistan administered Kashmir”.

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The China led One Belt One Road in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir: Implications for India
Manisha Chaurasiya

The strategic scenario for India in the region is altering like never before with the One Belt One Road (OBOR) project running through Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) in form of China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). Without India even geographically moving an inch in the Kashmir region, the circumstances of geo-politics around it have seriously modified in the negative. These developments for a number of reasons are alarming as they are against the Indian strategic and core interests.

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Rehabilitation Policy: A Field Study of PoK Returnee Militants
Arif Hussain Malik & Toseef Ahmad Bhat

The state of Jammu and Kashmir was the largest of the 562 princely states of India, covering over 85,806 miles or 222,236 square kilometers. Situated in the northernmost and north-western region of India and passing through the Karakoram and the associated ranges of mountains, it reaches Tibet in the east and Sinkiang in the north, both provinces of China. In the north-west, it is bound by the snow-capped mountains in Gilgit and Hunza, coterminous with Afghanistan on the western side and almost touching the then USSR territory known as Soviet Tajikstan through the Pamirs.

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Growing Presence of China in Pak Occupied Kashmir and India’s Concerns
Shobhit Kumar Jain

China and Pakistan have very long all weather friendship. The strategic cooperation between china and Pakistan is continuing to be stronger. Balancing India in South Asian region is the major fact making their bond stronger.

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Pakistan Occupied Kashmir and India: A Case of Prolonged Negligence
Vijay Kumar Yadav

The story of Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) displays a tale of a territory which formally belongs to India, both legally and historically but has been under a continuous occupation by Pakistan for around last 70 years.

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