India's Foreign Policy: The World Converges on Xi & Modi

Editorial

Today with China willing to spend its wealth earned from the developed world market on the less developed world through the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), thereby increasing its acceptability as a great nation, it along with India are regaining the super power status they had in the old world when between India and China they had 50% of the world GDP. Today India is the most happening nation in the world as far as investments are concerned, but on India’s terms, of bringing technology and manufacturing to India. One of the reasons that China attacked and which forced India to divert its funds spending from Development to Defence, or else India would be as developed as China as it is today. It is a matter of time that India grows in geometric progression to catch up with China and be a match to it and along with China it may be the new super power in the world which has financial veto power along with political military power. Grudgingly the world is accepting China at the high table of the powerful nations of the world. Its President and Supreme leader Xi Jinping who suffered at the hands of the Communists during the Cultural Revolution will make China so developed that issues like the Cultural Revolution will never touch the Chinese people again. He plans to develop areas around China, so well that they do not export dissent and confusion into China, and with prosperity all round so that no one will look at terror as a source of income. For Global standing and stature at the same time he wants to develop the entire under developed world like the Americans did with their Marshall plan, also called European recovery plan after the second world war, to restore European damaged economies and infrastructure, for which the US spent USD 12.5 billion. Just as the Marshall Plan was looked with suspicion, so is this Belt and Road Initiative of China looked upon. Happiness with development without boundaries is what China wants the world to be, of course built with Chinese equipment and men. The Socialists/Communists made China God free, its generations, brought on a dose of rationalism, about the nonexistence of a super power God, where man is his own God, and the master of his own destiny, has made the Chinese a class of people, only driven by the purpose to achieve, without absolutely not caring for the means to achieve it. As reported in the press and doing the rounds for some time the entire hacking operations of the North Koreans into western military systems happen with software developed in India by some Indian entities, India is the land that gave the world Shunya or Zero. China will always like to settle issues with India bi-laterally, with credit going to it and India and no one else. India and China will unite in action on climate change, as new alternative electric energy sources are being front led by China so much so all western car companies are tying up with China to develop Electric Vehicles. In India this initiative is led by Anand Mahindra of Mahindra and Mahindra, with their own money, so advanced and up to date are they that all latest cutting-edge technologies in the Electric Motor Industry are offered to Mahindra and Mahindra along with the others in the world. It talks of the level of development of the Lithium ion Industry in India at Mahindra and Mahindra. With political will India will soon catch up with China in the development of Electric Vehicles complete with Lithium ion battery technology as the concerned Minister Nitin Gadkari has announced the phasing out of the Petrol and Diesel cars by 2020, a bold step not liked by the Indian car industry following which there was a huge uproar but the Minister stood his ground. The huge Market India is, now India’s largest car maker Maruti Suzuki plans to launch E- cars by 2020. Under Make In India programme, complete with manufacture of Lithium Ion batteries, Motors and other major components, all others will soon follow. Government should buy up Lithium mines around the world or help Indian companies buy Lithium mines around the world as the Chinese are doing be it in Africa, or in Southern America, it is a great advantage if the raw material source is owned by the company or is supplied by the Government of the country.

India's Foreign Policy: The World Converges on Xi & Modi


ASEAN After Five Decades: Experiencing the Geo-Diplomatic Space of Territoriality from the Mirror of Indian Foreign Policy
Prof. Tridib Chakraborti

The issue of regional cooperation and establishment of a regional organization had been an important attribute of Southeast Asia since early 1960s. After years of conflict and turmoil, the natural craving for peace provided the immediate impetus for regional cooperation which was ultimately formalized with the establishment of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok with the five original member countries namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and the Philippines. 

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Jawaharlal Nehru’s Changing Perceptions of Communist China
Prof. Ankush B. Sawant

India – both British India and Indian political leaders – had enjoyed good relations with Chiang Kai-Shek and his government of China, the predecessor of revolutionary communist government. In fact, Nehru visited China in 1939 and established friendship with Chiang Kai-Shek and his wife. Nehru wanted to spend a month or so in China. However, during his stay in China, war broke out in Europe and Nehru had to return home spending only a little over a week or so in China. 

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Paris Climate Summit and Implications on India’s Policy
Prof. Narottam Gaan & Banita Mahanandia

The Paris Agreement on climate change signed and adopted in November 2015 marked a great divagation from the contents and purpose of the Kyoto protocol. What was achieved at Kyoto at least in terms of fixing the responsibility on the rich industrialized North countries for their polluting the atmosphere for the last three centuries was washed away at Paris.

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India – China Relations through Narendra Modi and Xi Jinping
Prof. Satish Kumar & Pratik Kumar Singh

There has always been personality cult in foreign policy. For almost six decades Indian foreign policy was categorized as a Nehruvian Foreign Policy; a policy which post Nehru followed the same road map. Since the beginning of Modi as a Prime Minister experts started talking about the switch over from Nehruvian foreign policy. Under the leadership of the current Prime Minister a course correction was done. 

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India and Israel Relations: India’s Growing Arc of Influence and Strategic Imperatives
Dr. Alok Kumar Gupta

Indo-Israel relations have always been mired with ambiguity and controversy since Israel coming into existence on January 14, 1948. Relationship though has evolved strategically and cooperative over the last 25 years since 1992. The relations have become increasingly visible during the present political dispensations in India and Israel. It has re-bounced once again and became euphoric when Prime Minister of India Mr. Narendra Modi visited Israel on July 4, 2017. 

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India’s Foreign Policy: Economic Challenges and Prospects
Dr. Pramod Kumar

India with its enormous resources both natural as well as human, have the ability to emerge as a world power in very near future. A stable government with the vision, foresight and strategy can achieve it and the present government under the leadership of Shri Narendra Modi is on the right path of achieving it. 

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Indian Nuclear Policy: A Legacy And Modi
Dr. Amulya K Tripathy

India’s Nuclear policy was in essence Nehru’s policy. In practice, Nehru was responsible for burgeoning economic situation in India. He saw development of the peaceful uses of nuclear power as the emerging scientific means to overcome abject poverty. 

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Contours of Indian Foreign Policy
Harmeet Singh

India’s foreign policy has always been pragmatic with ethical overtones. India’s freedom movement gave impetus to it through ideas that supported anti racism, anti-colonialism and anti-imperialism. These thoughts gave rise to the plank of non-alignment when free
India began to exercise its foreign policy.

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India-China and OBOR: A Realist Perspective
Dr. Ramakrushna Pradhan

One Belt, One Road (OBOR) initiative of China is one of most ambitious foreign and economic policy in recent times which parallels that of the Marshal Plan of post-world war world order. It is the pet project of President Xi Jinping and aims to strengthen Beijing’s economic leadership through a vast program of infrastructure building throughout China’s neighbouring regions.

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India-Pakistan Dialogue Process and CBMs: Challenges to India’s Foreign Policy during Narendra Modi Period
Rudra Prasad Sahoo

In true sense of the term Modi’s Pakistan policy is guided by what Charles Evens the US Under Secretary of State said to President Woodrow Wilson in 1923. Charles said “Foreign policies are not built upon abstractions. They are the result of practical conceptions of National Interest arising from some immediate exigency or standing out vividly in historical perspective.

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India-Nepal Relations in the Era of Modi Government: Challenges from China
Dr. Saleem Ahmad

In fine, India-Nepal relations are simply based on geo-political interests in the region, New Delhi looks at Kathmandu for geo-political security reasons because Nepal is a buffer state between the two hostile countries. One can see that, from the beginning, India has been trying hard to keep influence over Nepal and maintaining the relation between the two countries because of its geo-political significance. 

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Bell the Cat - India’s Riposte to Pakistan?
Prashant Barthwal

Partition, of 1947, did not result only in land divisions while it also divided the course of actions between the two nations, India and Pakistan. Undoubtedly, this painful transition of partition led many lives to the level of unexpected living situation where the lack of basic needs destroyed the remaining quotient of ‘Humanism’. 

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Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Foreign Policy
Dr. Chanchal Kumar

Since independence Indian foreign policy has been guided by certain cardinal principles. Prime among them is ‘third world unity’. This was one of the basic determinants of our foreign policy. Although in post-cold war scenario, India has acquired enormous prestige at the international level. 

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India’s Engagement with Emerging Powers through BRICS: Bonhomie and Challenges
Dr. Bharti Chhibber

The paper examines India’s engagement with emerging powers through BRICS comprising of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. India share long historic relationship within many of the BRICS countries. Over the last few years, initiatives, like the New Development Bank and $100 billion Contingent Reserve Agreement highlight the shared BRICS vision to reconstruct the global financial framework. 

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Indian Response to the Expansion of China
Dr. Kawaljeet Kaur

China has stepped up as a  new leader of world economic order as President Xi Jinping accelerates China’s efforts to do business with the world . After developing its economy and military power, China is now rising as an expansionist and  antagonistic power. 

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India-Africa Cooperation to leverage Socio-Economic Development
Dr. Utsav Kumar Singh

African countries are targeted by Indian investors due to their high-growth markets, demographic potential and mineral rich reserves. India is the fifth largest country investing in Africa, with investments over the past 20 years amounting to $54 billion, 19.2% of all its total Foreign Direct Investment. 

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Analysing India-Bhutan Relations in context to India’s Neighbourhood Policy: Lessons and Possibilities
Catherine Mainao Daimari & Avinandan Choudhury

India in the 21st century is striving for global outreach and it cannot truly become a global player if it cannot move beyond the security and political issues of the Indian subcontinent. According to Kaplan (2013, p. 254) ‘India is a regional power to the degree that it is entrapped by this geography (of the Indian subcontinent); it is a potential great power to the degree that it can come beyond it’. 

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Religion and Conflict: Imperatives for Indian Foreign Policy
Vandana Mishra

Some people view that religion should not be a part of the discourse but domestic issues have already crossed the borders and destabilized the border states. Religious conflicts do create ripple-effect and spill over to different countries. Such conflicts cannot remain confined within national boundaries of the victim states in this era of globalization and information technology. 

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India’s Soft Power Approach in South Asia
Monalisha Acharjee

Some people view that religion should not be a part of the discourse but domestic issues have already crossed the borders and destabilized the border states. Religious conflicts do create ripple-effect and spill over to different countries. Such conflicts cannot remain confined within national boundaries of the victim states in this era of globalization and information technology. 

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Emerging India and China in the Global Politico-Economic Environment: Changing Dynamics of Foreign Policy
Oindrila Datta Gupta

China and India are not only neighbours but the two Asian giants reshaping the global economy and international relations thereby inaugurating the so called “Asian era”. The interplay of both the nations is crucial in the global economy given that India and China are competing and cooperating with each other reflecting a transformation in economic power towards the developing world. 

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India and China in Twenty First Century: Strategic Rivalry and Economic Interdependence
Vinod Kumar

In this era of globalisation each nation depends upon others in terms of economic as well as security cooperation. No state can leave in isolations. India and China are the major emerging economic power with a large chunk of human resource and a huge market in Asia.

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