Environment & Sustainable Development: Emerging Challenges

Editorial

The world of Environment has again turned on its head from the time President Trump has taken over as President of the USA. He says the Paris climate deal is “one-sided”. The west has reached this level of civilization at the cost of the environment; the Chinese have followed the west. Chinese cities are in some cases smoking cities where without smoking you inhale fumes of as good as smoking 100 cigarettes a day. That is for good health in China.
Today the Green bodies are saying while the US is doing nothing and at the same time saying major polluting countries are doing nothing, The climate action pledges taken by India to curb missions are more than what the US and the EU are doing. The Paris Climate deal in the framework of the UN framework Convention on Climate change is planning to hold the global climate increase in temperature below 2 degrees centigrade and if possible to 1.5 degrees centigrade, as was before by reducing the greenhouse gas emissions The Industrial countries are to pay $ 100 billion in contributions from 2020 and make technology transfer to for cleaner energy in the developing world, most of which has not come from the developed world. Jobs are the priority of the Trump administration. To cut costs fossil fuel energy is the need of the hour, to cut emissions you need energy from Hydel and Solar, zero cost of raw materials that will do a lot of good to the environment, more than anything else.
The Energy Transitions Commission(ETC) says lowering cost of renewables will certainly energise the sector. Rachel Kyte, CEO and Special Representative of the UN Secretary Genral said,”To put the world on a well below 2 degrees C pathway, we must decarbonise power generation and extend electrification to a wider set of activities in the transport and building sectors. Clean electrification alone could deliver half of the carbon emission reductions required to reach 20 gigatonnes(Gt) of emissions by 2040". The report also says we cannot wish away coal, which will still account for 50% of the final energy demand by 2040 despite an approximate 30% decrease in fossil fuel use in general. The report also says “ Each year, energy productive needs to increase by three percent and share of energy from zero-carbon sources needs to rise at least one percentage point”. It also says that Meeting climate objectives therefore also requires a ramp-up in all forms of carbon capture and sequestration(conversion into products, under-ground storage, natural carbon sinks). In this context, fossil fuels use should be concentrated in highest value applications, which implies a rapid decrease in unabated coal consumption, a peak of oil in the 2020s and a continued role for gas provided methane leakages are reduced significantly. Carbon dioxide was 280 ppm( Parts per Million at the start of Industrialisation, today it is 400 ppm and still rising. The good news is that the US may go with the Paris climate deal with some caveats as good air is the need of all.
We are thankful to Professor P.C. Joshi, Deptt. of Anthropology, University of Delhi, for co-ordinating this special issue of World Focus as the Guest Editor.

Environment & Sustainable Development: Emerging Challenges


Climate Change, Energy Security and Sustainable Development
Prof. R.B. Singh and Sagar Khetwani

The potential sources of clean energy carries the immense scope to meet the rising demands of energy needs, mitigating climate change impacts and ensuring sustainable development, especially while the world population has been anticipated to reach around 9 billion mark with their energy consumption of 815 Quadrillion BTU by the year 2040.

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Emerging Challenges in Sustainable Development and Indian Experiments
Prof. P. C. Joshi

Sustainable development is a very slippery concept. It is slippery in the sense that it demands curtailment of luxury and privileges in favor of the needy others and therefore commitment to sustainable development by the rich and mighty may easily slip away. At the same time, high energy, high calorie, high wasteful lifestyle is not going to be sustained in the long term.

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Public Awareness and Partnership: Essentials of Sustainable Development
Prof. Umesh Kulshrestha and Reema Tiwari

Recalling the words of Mahatma Gandhi-”The world has enough for everyone’s need, but not enough for everyone’s greed”, this article emphasizes upon the public participation and mass awareness in resource utilization and management. By involving the common man in management, ‘everyone’s need will not be overlooked. At the same time, it will help in checking overexploitation of resources by greedy business groups.

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Climate Change and Culture: Beyond Human Nature and the Environment
Dr. Abhik Ghosh

Climate change and its effects have been regularly talked about end detailed by researchers, writers as well as common people of all colours and creeds. Today, many of the basic ideas of climate change have become part of the language and knowledge of the people in the street. Yet, there is often an element that is found to be missing in all the comments and discussions relating to climate change.

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Role of Tourism in Achieving Sustainable Development
Dr. Barkatullah Khan, Dr. Anshu and Dr. S. Fazal Daoud Firdausi

The SDG framework goes beyond MDGs. SDGs not only includes development priorities such as education, food security, nutrition and poverty but incorporates range of social, economic and environmental objectives. It promises more inclusive and peaceful societies. Achieving SDG requires innovative, stronger multi-stakeholder participation to mobilize shared knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources. 

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Environment, Science and Eastern Wisdom: Basics of Sustainable Development
Prof. Narottam Gaan

To address the issues of sustainable development what is imperative is ‘the feeling of all in each and each in all’ which is the salience; Indian spiritual tradition and wisdom will be the guiding metaphor for understanding and practice. To feel being hurt by the pain or damage wrought to the living non- humans and material world is the result of attainment of a stage that transcends the mundane and the worldly by practice of the way the ancient Indian wisdom has shown to humanity where one realizes the unity of all in his self and his self in all. 

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Environment and Sustainable Development: A Challenge to Mankind
Prof. Manas Chakrabarty

In recent years the entire mankind is confronted with a major challenge, a challenge of survival of the mankind. We are noticing a radical metamorphosis in the entire environment which is putting the mankind to the million dollar question: how long mankind will survive coping with the fast change and decay of the natural resources. Hence, the question of sustainable development has come to the forefront.

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Climate Change and Threat Perceptions of Small Islands’ Security: A Case Study of Maldives
Dr. Alok Kumar Gupta & Vandana Mishra

The human induced disturbances have led to a severe ecological imbalance and problems such as erosion, flooding, inundation, food shortages, destruction of crops, and overpopulation. The ecological disturbances and poor sanitation has severely affected the human health resulting in growth of various diseases. Although the people of Maldives are learning to live with these challenges but the devastation due to ecological imbalance always has an upper hand.

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Reinterpreting ‘Sustainable Development’ in Environmental Management
Dr. Kalindi Sharma & Prof. P. C. Joshi

Environmental activists and scholars have taken differing intellectual positions regarding the goals and meaning conveyed by ‘sustainable development’. While most believe in a wider scope for application of the concept based on its suitability to the socio-political, economic, and biological aspects of the man-nature synergy, there are other members of the community that suspect that merely prefixing every developmental initiative with the term ‘sustainable’ would not solve the issues plaguing the environment and natural resource utilization.

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Mental Health, Environment and Sustainable Development: Emerging Challenges
Dr. Khirod Chandra Moharana

The present development goals that the United Nations is pursuing are primarily oriented towards a sustainable world. There is recognition that the planet we inhabit needs to be sustained while we are developing and marching towards progress. The environment that has been sustaining us has been exposed to human activities and experiments throughout history especially after the Industrial revolution. 

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Beyond Sustainable Development: A Discourse on Sustainable Livelihood, Globalization and Vulnerability to Natural Disasters
Prashant Khattri

The sustainable development framework came to the fore-front of the international policy making during the 1987 at the United Nations Commission on Environment and Development. This Commission which is popularly known as the Brundtland Commission established the need for sustainable development as against the dominant model of development that was not sensitive to the needs and conservation of the environment. 

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Rapid Development and Environment: Local Response, Managing Natural Resources and Use of Renewable Energy in Ladakh
Sonam Joldan and Tashi Lundup

Ladakh is the northernmost part of Jammu and Kashmir State, administratively divided into two main districts; Leh and Kargil. Historically, due to its centrally located in the Western Himalaya and situated on a branch of the ancient Silk route, Ladakh has been exposed to a variety of external influences for centuries. 

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E-Waste Management: Issues and Challenges
Dr. Bharti Chhibber

The digital era with an information and communication revolution over the past decades has proved to be a boon for the humanity.  But at the time it has its own problems, e-waste being one such issue. Unregulated accumulation and recycling of hazardous e-waste may have dangerous repercussions on human health. Without the proper procedures of e-waste disposal toxic substances may contaminate the natural habitat and endanger human well-being. 

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Model of Sustainable Development in South Asia: Research, Recourse and Revival
Dr. Snehil Kacker

South Asia is one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change. The negative consequences have already been felt in the form of severe cyclones, erratic monsoon and rising sea levels. Globalization and economic development of the region has already stressed the fragile ecosystem. It is therefore desired that South Asia should move beyond the western model of development and search for sustainable alternative suitable to its growing needs.

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Sustainable Development and Emerging Challenges
Dr. Sarika Dubey

In the very simple words sustainable means something that has a longer life or pertaining to a system that maintains its own viability and that can be carried forward. In the Today’s world the concept of development has been replaced by the term “sustainable development”. It is because we all have realized that we are chasing the wrong goals on the name of development. Today, even a breath of fresh air, pure drinking water is becoming a luxury because of over exploitation of resources and unorganized pattern of development. 

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Sustainable Development and Environmental Problems: Coping with Green House Effect, Global Warming and Climate Change
Dr. Bhawna Pokharna

The Paris Agreement requires all Parties to put forward their best efforts through “nationally determined contributions” (NDCs) and to strengthen these efforts in the years ahead. This includes requirements that all Parties report regularly on their emissions and on their implementation efforts. In 2018, Parties will take stock of the collective efforts in relation to progress towards the goal set in the Paris Agreement and to inform the preparation of NDCs.

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Sustainable Development and Environment: Challenges and Responsibilities
Dr. Minakshi, Dr. Rahul Kumar and Prof. P.C. Joshi

Article 21 of the Indian Constitution conferring the Right to Life encompasses right to clean environment, right to livelihood, right to live with dignity and a number of other associated rights. The Directive Principles of State Policy often referred to as the ‘conscience’ of the Constitution are intended to ensure ‘distributive justice’ and that political democracy in India is accompanied side by side with social and economic democracy.

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The Participation of Local Communities and NGOs: A Step Towards Sustainable Development in Garhwal Himalaya
S.K. Bandooni, Anupama M. Hasija, MiranaLaishram Devi and P.C. Joshi

The  Garhwal Himalaya of Uttarakhand is rich in water resource. Nearly 100 cm to 200 cm of rainfall during summer monsoon season, along with cool temperature and 20 cm to 25 cm rainfall and snowfall during the winter season make the region rich in terms of water resource in the form of glaciers, natural lakes, springs and rivers and these water resources enrich the different areas of Garhwal Himalaya. 

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Indigenous Tribl Knowledge and Its Role in Environmental Conservation in North-East India
Dr. Sapam Ranabir Singh

Indigenous knowledge is the local knowledge that is unique to a culture or society. It is also known by other names such as: ‘local knowledge’, ‘folk knowledge’, ‘people knowledge’, ‘traditional wisdom’ or traditional science’. It is passed from generation to generation, usually by word of mouth and cultural rituals, and has been the basis for agriculture, food preparation, health care, education, conservation and the wide range of other activities that sustain societies in many parts of the world (UNESCO; 2010). 

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Emerging Challenges of Water Scarcity in India: The Way Ahead
Dr. Saleem Ahmad

Water is Life. Water is power. Water is the new oil of the contemporary era. Water is becoming, rapidly, scarce across the globe through overuse and contamination. As this issue becomes more acute, tensions will escalate and this will affect us all. But unlike oil, water is essential for survival of humanity. 

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Community-based Forest Management, Pool Resources and Sustainability
Rupal Sood

The usage of the common pool resources (CPRs) and their sustainable management for is an important question facing both development planners and academia. The introduction of the concept of sustainable development, which links social and ecological systems over time, results in the emergence of the co-managed conservation (WCED; 1987). 

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